Folia Clínica et Biológica 33: 23-41. Such statement supports our findings for lion tamarins, which have the triangular pattern, i.e., three vallate papillae. The outer appearance of large conical papillae distributed on the root showed some variety; some were spindle‐shaped, and some were conical with round tips (Fig. MACHIDA et al. Tongue mass; California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). At the central part of the vallate papilla, a shallow groove was sometimes seen. Proccedings of Zoological Society 1: 1-29. Key words: Lingual papillae; morphology; New World monkeys; SEM. [ Links ], MATSUKAWA, N. & S. OKADA. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Anatomy, Nippon Dental University at Niigata, Niigata, Japan. A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Dorsal Surface of the Human Tongue. Morphological changes in oral mucosae and their connective tissue cores regarding oral submucous fibrosis. RYLANDS (Ed.) Comparative Taste Biology with Special Focus on Birds and Reptiles. They also possess unique internal features, such as in the circulatory (Williams et al., 1999) and respiratory systems (Boutilier et al., 2001). Moreover, according to IWASAKI et al. B: After partial removal of the epithelium. VII. The apex of the tongue was rounded. Scanning Electron Microscopy. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. Comparative scanning electron microscopic study of the lingual papillae in two species of domestic mammals (Equus cabalus e Bos taurus). At the top of the fungiform papillae (Fig. JACKOWIAK, H. & S. GODYNICKI. (1992), and the same triangular pattern, i.e., three papillae, according to EMURA et al. There have been many comparative morphological investigations of land mammal species (MacDonald and Johnstone, 1995, Endo et al., 1999, Salazan et al., 1995). Before observation, specimens were coated with Pt‐Pd. These small protrusions were distributed in the anterior part of the tongue as well as in the interpapillary region of the root, and were arranged somewhat regularly. [ Links ]. Folia Primatologica 42: 149-179. Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. 2004. A set of scanning electron micrographs of vallate papillae. Filiform papillae of human, rat and swine tongue. Hence, the morphological characteristics of the California sea lion's tongue may occupy a transitional position between terrestrial and aquatic environments. (2004) have reported that the number of papillae varies according to the phylogenetic relation, in which Tupaia, Tamarins and Drills have a primitive pattern with three circumvallate papillae. Morphology of the dorsal lingual papillae in the Japanese macaque and Savanna monkey. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA) were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. These variations among mammals, including marine mammals, may be due to masticatory methods and/or dietary habits. Morphology of the dorsal lingual papillae in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). In our study with SEM, we could not evidence the microvilli of the cells inside the gustatory pore, probably due poor fixation and conservation method (formalin). A tongue is a muscle. On the surface of these CTCs, small rod‐shaped protrusions of secondary cores were densely distributed. Transmission electron microscopy of a blood vessel with large endothelial nuclei and intranuclear inclusions containing numerous 40-nm virions (inset, higher power). At the posterior area of the tongue, five vallate papillae were arranged in a V shape. Under magnification, after removal of the epithelium, numerous small rod cores were seen densely distributed on the surface of each core (Fig. 1967). E-26/171-573/00) and PROPEP-UNIGRANRIO. 2004). One of these characteristics is the locomotive system. [ Links ], EMURA S.; A. TAMADA; D. HAYAKAWA; H. CHEN & S. SHOUMURA. ... Med Aid India is an established reputed global company engaged in the manufacture of prepared microscope teaching slides and digital slides in local and global markets. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, Unsteady‐state gas exchange and storage in diving marine mammals: the harbor porpoise and gray seal, The effect of mechanical stimulation on the keratinization of sulcular epithelium, Comparative anatomy of the radial sesamoid bone in the polar bear (. The dorsal surface of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins had four types of papillae: fungiform, filiform, vallate (one medial and two lateral), and foliate. Advancements in this field focus primarily on novel cleaning fluids, with less focus on brush development. Our present observations indicate that although the California sea lion has made partial adaptations to an aquatic environment, it still preserves some characteristics of land mammals. The ultrastructure of the foliate papillae is typical, with 1 to 3 folds measuring approximately 600 µm in extension. Figure 39. They have taste buds on their upper surface which can distinguish the five tastes: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami.They have a core of connective tissue.The fungiform papillae are … RESULTS Macroscopic Overview. The Medianus linguae was somewhat visible in the midline of the tongue. Oct 17, 2014 - Explore Rachel Davis's board "Teaching: Biology - Microscopes", followed by 142 people on Pinterest. RICHTER. 2004). 2) was a paratokeratinized type that consisted of a thick germinal layer with numerous keratohyaline granules and a cornified layer, which had nuclei in the most superficial cells. According to some older histological investigations regarding the tongue of the California sea lion (Simpson and Gardner, 1972; Sonntag, 1922, 1923), lingual papillae and taste buds similar to those of land mammals were seen at the root of the sea lion's tongue; however, these studies lacked detailed descriptions of the lingual papillae. 1988). 7) of these disk‐like vallate papillae, numerous rod‐like secondary CTCs were found deep in the epithelium. E-mail: pissinatticprj@terra.com.br. The authors thank Ulysses Lins and Fernanda Abreu of the Institute of Microbiology, UFRJ, and Marcia Sader, PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ, for their assistance in preparing the specimens and images of the SEM for this study. Light micrograph of a transverse section of a vallate papilla. Shortly after that, blocks were cut from various parts of the tongue. A tongue’s upper surface is covered with taste buds. (MATSUKAWA & OKADA 1994), and five in lion tamarin (KOBAYASHI et al. 7). Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Structural and ultrastructural characteristics of the tongue of the Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758). See more ideas about biology, microscopic, things under a microscope. Traumatic Ulcer Tongue- Prepared Microscope Slide. A histological report by Kubota (1968) described the distribution of lingual papillae in the Northern fur seal; however, this was based only on macroscopical and light‐microscopical observations. The left and right sides of the tongue are separated by a vertical section of fibrous tissue, called a lingual septum. Hummingbird tongue. samples were examined in Scanning Electron Microscope JSM-6420, 15Kv at Department PEMM/COPPE, Universidade Fed-eral do Rio de Janeiro. View Complete Details. 1967), and Saimiri (MATSUKAWA & OKADA 1994, IWASAKI et al. The epithelium of the outer surface of each papilla was relatively smooth. Marmosets and tamarins systematics, behaviour, and ecology. Female lion yawning and showing sharp teeth and tongue under thorny bush in Etosha National Park, Namibia, Africa. Therefore, further studies are required to support those findings. E-mail: cburity@unigranrio.com.br IICentro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro, Fundação Estadual de Engenharia do Meio Ambiente. [ Links ], LIU, H.C. & J.C. LEE. (1986). Sistematics, geographic distribuiton, and some notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae, p. 11-77. No animal was sacrificed in this study. [ Links ], BEISSER, J.C.; P. LEMELL & J. WEISGRAM. Acta Anatomica 112: 310-320. 1986, AGUNGPRIYONO et al. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. Their heart can move around due to the lack of a diaphragm this is helpful when passing large prey. Large conical papillae were closely distributed on the root. (1967) have already discussed the absence of foliate papillae in prosimians and their prevalence in New and Old World Primates. 1944, CHAMORRO et al. B: After removal of the epithelium. The anatomy of the tongue of the domestic Norway rat. Aside from shape and size, there were no obvious structural differences between the large conical papillae distributed on the root and the filiform papillae on the anterior tongue (Fig. The coating, with gold, was made using Balzers SCD-040. This study comprised 10 golden-headed lion tamarins with a mean age of 128 months, a mean weight of 602.2 g, and a mean total length of 520 mm (without the tail). Table 1 shows a summary of morphological differences between the present observations and reports by previous investigators regarding epithelial surfaces. But Dr. Noel discovered otherwise, quite by accident. The fungiform papillae were approximately 500–1,500 μm in diameter. A tongue has a tip and a blade (the part just behind the tip). They were then observed with a scanning electron microscope (S‐800; Hitachi high‐technologies, Tokyo, Japan). 1988, MATSUKAWA & OKADA 1994). Journal of Anatomy 187: 635-640. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. C: Root. Isolated on orange background in studio in casual white shirt. Carnivora, Fossil evidence for the origin of aquatic locomotion in archaeocete whales, The diving physiology of bottlenose dolphins (, A comparative morphological study on the tongues of Manatee and Dugong (Sirenia), A comparative morphological study on the tongue and the lingual papillae of some marine mammals—particularly of four species of Odontoceti and Zalophus. The surface of the fungiform papillae (Fig. Acta Anatomica 123: 114-120. Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini) with an introduction to Primates. The distribution pattern in lion tamarins with three papillae in "V", the medial papilla with a distinctive shape from that of the lateral ones, is referred to in the literature as primitive (HERSHKOVITZ 1977, KOBAYASHI et al. 3) was smooth and dome‐like. The fungiform papillae projected among the filiform ones (Fig. Reason: The cat’s sweet perception genes are broken. It examines the air Bourne particles that the tongue has collected. 6). has been carried out. Cetacea, Sirenia and Ungulata, The comparative anatomy of the tongues of the mammalia. Human tongue observed at a microscopic level with magnification. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. 1.) Their left lung is smaller or non existent. Table 1 summarizes the morphological differences between our present observations and those of previous investigators. COIMBRA-FILHO. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates), Carlos Henrique de F. BurityI; Mirlene R. da SilvaI; Andreia M. de SouzaI; Carla F. F. LancettaI; Mildred F. MedeirosI; Alcides PissinattiII, ISetor de Morfologia, Unigranrio. These numerous large conical papillae were seen with their tops inclined toward the posterior direction. After immersion of the specimens, the epithelium was exfoliated from the underlying CTCs at the boundary of epithelium‐connective tissue … No accessory processes were seen. PINHEIRO; C.C.D. 6) had a bulbous appearance and numerous small rod‐like secondary cores were densely distributed on its surface. The CTCs of the fungiform papillae were also engaged deeply with the epithelium. Indeed, the morphology of the lingual papillae shows more simplification as it ranges from amphibious to totally aquatic species. Postfixation was made in 1% osmium tetroxide solution for two hours at 4ºC. Close-up of part of the male tongue in soft focus at high magnification under the microscope. Specimens were washed with tap water, and then treated with a 0.5% tannic acid solution. Birds called oxpeckers search the giraffe's skin, eating parasites such as ticks. Although such fungiform papillae have microridges and a well-marked gustatory function, our study lacks morphological elements to support the friction hypothesis. They were similar to a crown or as finger-like papillae, with a flat center and longer and more numerous prolongations pointing towards the posterior region, with approximately 200 µm in width, and shorter and less numerous prolongations pointing towards the opposite margin (Fig. In the literature, the diameter of this pore has been reported as ranging from 1 to 7 µm in mammals, such as rats, rabbits, simians, and humans (ARVIDISON 1976). (1988) and other authors, no microridges were observed in the cells of the filiform papillae, which is in accordance with our findings in lion tamarins. VIII. [ Links ], ARVIDSON, K. 1976. 1982. Numerous rod‐shaped secondary cores are closely distributed on the primary core of the fungiform papillae. STEFANINI; F.E. (Kobayashi, 1992; Kobayashi et al., 1988a), cat (Felidae: Felis catus sp.) [ Links ], KOBAYASHI, K.; M. KUMAMURA; K. YOSHIMURA; M. TAKAHASHI; J.H. Mixed salivary glands (arrows) are distributed densely between the striated muscle layers. Some authors believe that the microridges could be linked to mucous retention, thus, making the papillae more efficient in regard to resistance to friction (MIKKONEN & SORVARI 1985, IWASAKI et al. The structure and number of folds in foliate papillae are also in accordance with that established in the literature. ALMEIDA & T.M. However, EMURA et al. [ Links ], FISH, H.S. Comparative Morphological Study on the Stereo-Structure of the Lingual Papillae and Their Connective Tissue Cores of the American Beaver (Castor Canadensis). [ Links ]. The surrounding circular furrow was obtusely angled. Scale bar = 500 μm. (1992). This study focuses on the cat, one of nature’s most fastidious groomers. Morphological Study of the Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) Tongue. This study comprised 10 golden-headed lion … In the studied lion tamarins, that diameter was approximately 2 µm, being similar to that of rodents. Scale bar = 500 μm. Annals of Anatomy 176: 357-361. The history of cat tongues. Using a macro lens on a Canon 1D, and some food coloring for visualization, we found that these grooming papillae had U-shaped cavities, as shown below.” ... Also, … The interpapillary area of the filiform and fungiform CTCs also had numerous short rod‐shaped connective tissue protrusions. Bar 5 100 nm. 1987. Figure 3 depicts a lateral vallate papilla of approximately 2.0 mm in its greater length. I. The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, protists, and other living organisms.This number, along with the visual appearance of the chromosome, is known as the karyotype, and can be found by looking at the chromosomes through a microscope.Attention is paid to their length, the position of the centromeres, … Those authors reported depressions in the keratinized epithelium, where a microridge pattern, a supposedly system of microchannels and a central round pore may be detected. & A.F. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins. The Anatomical and Histochemical Properties of the tongue of primates. We discover structures on the cat tongue, hollow spines that we call cavo papillae, shared … Scanning electron microscopic and histochemical studies of foliate papillae in the rabbit, rat and mouse. Scale bar = 500 μm. The California sea lion is categorized as a marine mammal carnivore, but the degree of keratinization shown in this study differed from that found in the tongue of another marine mammal carnivore, the sea otter (Lutrinae: Enhydra lutris) (Shimoda et al., 1996), which has a thin keratinized cornified layer. 5). ; M. HYNYNEN & P. HYVONEN. Compared to land mammals, aquatic mammals—especially cetaceans, sirenians, and pinnipeds—have some unique characteristics for adaptation to aquatic circumstances. Light micrograph of a fungiform papilla. Scanning Electron … With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Archives of Histology and Cytology 55: 295-305. Acta Anatomica 130: 280-284. A: External view of several large conical papillae with rounded ends. … Gongylonema pulchrum is the only parasite of the genus Gongylonema capable of infecting humans.. Gongylonema pulchrum infections are due to humans acting as accidental hosts for the parasite. Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Tongue in the White Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla, Accipitridae). Postfixation was accomplished by a 10‐min immersion in a 1% OsO4 solution. Such characteristics have also been observed in species of Callithrix (SONNTAG 1921, LEDOUX 1964, MATSUKAWA & OKADA 1994), Saguinus (MACHIDA et al. Lingual glands (mixed glands) were found only in the lamina propria of the lingual radix, and its orifices opened at the bottom of the furrow and center groove of the papilla. The CTCs were generally thick, and were engaged deeply with the epithelium. Near the top of the vallate papillae were some small pores, which were similar to the taste pores on the fungiform papillae. (2002). The large conical papillae were approximately 1,300–10,000 μm long and 1,200–4,000 μm wide. Folia Primatologica 5: 264-279. Prepared Oral Histology Slide - Fungiform Papillae Tongue - Buy Microscope Slides at best price of Rs 800/piece from Med Aid India. Coloured Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of the human tongue revealing the pore of a taste bud. Photo Macro Scanning Electron Microscope Microscopic Photography Micro Photography Microscopic Images Macro And Micro Fotografia Macro ... (SEM). In contrast, other marine mammal species, such as sea otters, are regarded as living in more of a land environment, and their tongue has many features in common with land mammals (Shimoda et al., 1996). In the macroscopic images the tongue of the California sea lion (Fig. The number of vallate papillae in primates seems to have been well established in the literature (SONTAG 1921). Morphological study of the lingual papillae of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by scanning electron microscopy. The skin of the tongue: The various papillae: Their number and distribution. MALONE & C.P. So, if we had a microscope, then we would see that the skin on the lion's nose is made of separate little parts, and these parts are called cells. On the other hand, most pinnipedia are amphibious. Fine structure of the Dorsal epithelium of the tongue of the Japanese terrapin, Clemmys japonica (Chelonia, Emydinae). Taste buds were found in the epithelium of the furrow and at the top of the vallate papillae. 2004), birds (MARTINEZ et al. On the dorsal surface from the apex to the boundary between the anterior and posterior tongue, filiform papillae were densely distributed. Functional morphology of the taste buds of Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris. The flat tip of the fungiform papilla had a diameter of approximately 43 µm and epithelial cells similar to scales on its surface (Fig. Three captive lions diagnosed … Annals of Anatomy 178: 243-50. The quantity of folds varied in the same tongue when comparing the right and left sides, and the space between the folds varied from 240 to 360 µm of width (Fig. 1992. Their ultrastructure was typical in the different regions of the tongue. The round areas (purple) are fungiform papillae, which contain the taste buds. A taste bud (arrow) is situated in the epithelium on the top of the papilla. International Journal of Morphology 21: 117-122. van Bénéden, 1864) Anatomical and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Tongue in the Meerkat (Suricata suricatta, Schreber, 1776). The lingual papillae distributed on … But when she examined the tongue under a microscope, she found this: “A chunk of meat had been lodged into the tips of these papillae. 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