Because OH 5 was associated with the tools and processed animal bones, they presumed it to have been the toolmaker. P. boisei belongs to just one of the many side branches of human evolution, which most scientists agree includes all Paranthropus species and did not lead to H. sapiens. Paranthropus boisei / Australopithecus boisei, KNM-ER 406, L7a-125, 1 700 000 BP. P. boisei is the most robust of this group.  For comparison, modern human men and women in the year 1900 averaged 163 cm (5 ft 4 in) and 152.7 cm (5 ft), respectively. Being cut off from the forests of Central Africa by a savanna corridor, these East African forests would have promoted high rates of endemism, especially during times of climatic volatility. What characteristics define the genus Homo? The force was focused on the large cheek teeth (molars and premolars). It was originally placed into its own genus as "Zinjanthropus boisei", but is now relegated to Paranthropus along with other robust australopithecines.  Now, the earliest known South African australopithecine ("Little Foot") dates to 3.67 million years ago, contemporaneous with A. Australopithecus - Australopithecus - Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus boisei: Australopithecus robustus and A. boisei are also referred to as “robust” australopiths. Cranial Capacity: 530 cc. In 1988, Falk and Tobias demonstrated that hominins can have both an occipital/marginal and transverse/sigmoid systems concurrently or on opposite halves of the skull, such as with the P. boisei specimen KNM-ER 23000. The jaws are the main argument for monophyly, but such anatomy is strongly influenced by diet and environment, and could in all likelihood have evolved independently in P. boisei and P. robustus. :120 The P. boisei skull is heavily built, and features a defined brow ridge, receding forehead, rounded bottom margins of the eye sockets, inflated and concave cheek bones, a thick palate, and a robust and deep jawbone. Paranthropus boisei and Paranthropus robustus lived between 1.0 and 2.3 million years ago. , The wide range of size variation in skull specimens seems to indicate a great degree of sexual dimorphism with males being notably bigger than females. These were likely preyed upon by the large carnivores of the time, including big cats, crocodiles, and hyenas. Proponents of paraphyly allocate these three species to the genus Australopithecus as A. boisei, A. aethiopicus, and A. Robust australopithecines are characterised by heavily built skulls capable of producing high stresses and bite forces, and some of the largest molars with the thickest enamel of any known ape. Among the notable specimens found include the well preserved skull KNM-ER 406 from Koobi Fora in 1970. The discovery of P. boisei was important because it disproved Milford Wolpoff’s “Single Species Hypothesis" that was so popular in the 1960s. :107 Especially from 1966 to 1975, several more specimens revealing facial elements were reported from the Shungura Formation, Ethiopia; Koobi Fora and Chesowanja, Kenya; and Omo and Konso, Ethiopia. KNM-ER 732, a partial cranium of a female Paranthropus boisei has many characteristic P. boisei features.  In 2020, the first associated hand bones were reported, KNM-ER 47000 (which also includes a nearly complete arm), from Ileret, Kenya. 1.8 MYA. (book by Richard Potts and Chris Sloan), What was the advantage of the big jaws and teeth of, These early humans flourished for a million years, over four times as long as our own species.  The hand of KNM-ER 47000 shows Australopithecus-like anatomy lacking the third metacarpal styloid process (which allows the hand to lock into the wrist to exert more pressure), a weak thumb compared to modern humans, and curved phalanges (finger bones) which are typically interpreted as adaptations for climbing. A new fossil from Olduvai. Paranthropus boisei is a species of australopithecine from the Early Pleistocene of East Africa about 2.3 to 1.34 or 1 million years ago. P. boisei is usually thought to descend from earlier P. aethiopicus (who inhabited the same geographic area just a few hundred thousand years before) and lived alongside several other species of early humans during its 1.1 million year existence. In 1938, Robert Broom discovered the first Paranthropus robustus material at the site of Swartkrans, South Africa. Because skeletal elements are so limited in these species, their affinities with each other and to other australopithecines is difficult to gauge with accuracy. Where Lived: Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi) When Lived: About 2.3 to 1.2 million years ago Paranthropus boisei lived about 2.3 to 1.2 million years ago. :117–121, Before P. boisei was described (and P. robustus was the only member of Paranthropus), Broom and Robinson continued arguing that P. robustus and A. africanus (the then only known australopithecines) were two distinct lineages. Paranthropus boisei, arguably the best known of the “robust australopithecines,” (the species included in the genus Paranthropus—Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus robustus, and Paranthropus boisei) is known from East African sites dating between 2.4 and 1.4 million years ago.  However, the lower-end specimen, Omo L338‐y6, is a juvenile, and many skull specimens have a highly damaged or missing frontal bone which can alter brain volume estimates. Paranthropus (Paranthropus Broom, 1938). This would mean that, like chimps, they often inhabited areas with an average diurnal temperature of 25 °C (77 °F), dropping to 10 or 5 °C (50 or 41 °F) at night. Constantino, P., Wood, B., 2007. ER 406 ER 406 was found by R. Leakey and H. Mutua in 1970 at Koobi Fora, Kenya. Molar characteristics from the more recent material from the Drimolen site are thought to be intermediate between the Swartkrans and Kromdraai molars, and most researchers now … , Such arguments are based on how one draws the hominin family tree, and the exact classification of Australopithecus species with each other is quite contentious. Approaching the Science of Human Origins from Religious Perspectives, Religious Perspectives on the Science of Human Origins, Submit Your Response to "What Does It Mean To Be Human? Temporal range: Eastern Africa during the Pleistocene epoch from about 2.4 until about 1.4 million years ago.. A typical representative: † Paranthropus boisei (Mary Leakey, 1959). Like gorillas, the apparently specialised adaptations of the skull may have only been used with less desirable fallback foods, allowing P. boisei to inhabit a wider range of habitats than gracile australopithecines. However, they still retained Zinjanthropus and recommended demoting it to subgenus level as Australopithecus (Zinjanthropus) boisei, considering Paranthropus to be synonymous with Australopithecus. Order: Primates.  In the upper jaw, the 1st molar averages roughly 250 mm2 (0.39 sq in), the 2nd molar 320 mm2 (0.50 sq in), and the 3rd molar 315 mm2 (0.488 sq in); in the lower jaw, the 1st molar averages roughly 260 mm2 (0.40 sq in), the 2nd molar 315 mm2 (0.488 sq in), and the 3rd molar 340 mm2 (0.53 sq in). Nature 184, 491-494. Cranial capacity in this species suggests a slight rise in brain size (about 100 cc in 1 million years) independent of brain enlargement in the genus Homo. Earliest known common genetic condition. Sus fósiles aparecen en sedimentos del Pleistoceno inferior, de hace 1,3 a 2,3 millones de años. Estimated Weight: 70 kg The species was originally named Zinjanthropus boisei by the Leakeys, apparently ignoring Dr. Robert Broom's original Paranthropus name, later assigned to the Australopithecus genus which was then split as described above. More expansive river valleys–namely the Omo River Valley–may have served as important refuges for forest-dwelling creatures. boisei. What can lice tell us about human evolution? Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Adventures in the Rift Valley: Interactive, Digital Archive of Ungulate and Carnivore Dentition, Teaching Evolution through Human Examples, Members Thoughts on Science, Religion & Human Origins (video), Science, Religion, Evolution and Creationism: Primer, Burin from Laugerie Haute & Basse, Dordogne, France, Butchered Animal Bones from Gona, Ethiopia, Neanderthal Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA.  During the Pleistocene, there seems to have been coastal and montane forests in Eastern Africa.  However, when describing P. boisei 5 years earlier, he said, "There is no reason whatever, in this case, to believe that the skull [OH 5] represents the victim of a cannibalistic feast by some hypothetical more advanced type of man. The presumed male OH 80 may have been 156 cm (5 ft 1 in) tall and 50 kg (110 lb) in weight (assuming improbable humanlike proportions), and the presumed female KNM-ER 1500 124 cm (4 ft 1 in) tall (though its species designation is unclear). :128–132, In a sample of 10 P. boisei specimens, brain size varied from 444–545 cc (27.1–33.3 cu in) with an average of 487.5 cc (29.75 cu in). It is debated if Paranthropus is a valid natural grouping (monophyletic) or an invalid grouping of similar-looking hominins (paraphyletic). ‘Zinj’ became the type specimen for P. boisei and, soon after, arguably the most famous early human fossil from Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania. This is typically considered to be evidence of a high bite force. P. boisei mainly inhabited wet, wooded environments, and coexisted with H. habilis, H. rudolfensis, H. ergaster, and H. erectus.  The microwear patterns in P. robustus have been thoroughly examined, and suggest that the heavy build of the skull was only relevant when eating less desirable fallback foods.  Since then, hominin exploitation of USOs has gained more support. In 1938, a schoolboy found some fossil fragments on a hillside at Kromdraai in South Africa. Nuts and bolts classification: Arbitrary or not? This is generally interpreted as having allowed P. boisei to resist high stresses while chewing, though the thick palate could instead be a byproduct of facial lengthening. , Australopithecines are generally considered to have had a faster, apelike growth rate than modern humans largely due to dental development trends. In 1981, Martin applied equations formulated by ecologists Alton S. Harestad and Fred L. Bunnel in 1979 to estimate the home range and population density of large mammals based on weight and diet, and, using a weight of 52.4 kg (116 lb), he got: 130 ha (320 acres) and 0.769 individuals per square kilometre if herbivorous; 1,295 ha (3,200 acres) and 0.077 individuals if omnivorous; and 287,819 ha (711,220 acres) and 0.0004 individuals if carnivorous. , In 1954, Robinson suggested that the heavily built skull of Paranthropus (at the time only including P. robustus) was indicative of a specialist diet specifically adapted for processing a narrow band of foods. Those features show that Paranthropus boisei likely ate tough foods like roots and nuts. ", "Shaping Humanity: How Science, Art, and Imagination Help Us Understand Our Origins" (book by John Gurche), What Does It Mean To Be Human? The relatively small brain size of 550 cm 3 is similar to that of Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus .  The molars are bunodont, featuring low and rounded cusps. Nonetheless, despite lacking a particularly forceful precision grip like Homo, the hand was still dextrous enough to handle and manufacture simple tools. , OH 80 was found associated with a mass of Oldowan stone tools and animal bones bearing evidence of butchery.  Such a strategy is similar to that used by modern gorillas, which can sustain themselves entirely on lower quality fallback foods year-round, as opposed to lighter built chimps (and presumably gracile australopithecines) which require steady access to high quality foods. Flaring cheekbones gave P. boisei a very wide and dish-shaped face, creating a larger opening for bigger jaw muscles to pass through and support massive cheek teeth four times the size of a modern human’s. Nonetheless, the intertrochanteric line is much more defined in OH 80, the gluteal tuberosity is more towards the midline of the femur, and the mid-shaft in side-view is straighter, which likely reflect some difference in load-bearing capabilities of the leg. See also. While the Olduvai material is attributed to Mary Leakey, it was her hus… , A 2017 study postulated that, because male non-human great apes have a larger sagittal crest than females (particularly gorillas and orangutans), the crest may be influenced by sexual selection in addition to supporting chewing muscles. P. boisei is the most robust of the robust australopithecines, whereas the South African P. robustus is smaller with comparatively more gracile features. The specimen's 1st molar may have erupted 2–3 months before death, so possibly at 2.7–3.3 years of age. Paranthropus aethiopicus is an extinct species of robust australopithecine from the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene of East Africa about 2.7–2.3 million years ago.  Other likely Oldowan predators of great apes include the hunting hyaena Chasmaporthetes nitidula, the sabertoothed cats Dinofelis and Megantereon, and the crocodile Crocodylus anthropophagus. This could either indicate that P. boisei used a combination of terrestrial walking as well as suspensory behaviour, or was completely bipedal but retained an ape-like upper body condition from some ancestor species due to a lack of selection to lose them. This …  It has since been demonstrated that the parietal branch could originate from either the anterior or posterior branches, sometimes both in a single specimen on opposite sides of the skull as in KNM-ER 23000 and OH 5. It is dated to about 1.7 million years ago.  To explain why P. boisei was associated with Oldowan tools despite not being the tool maker, Louis Leakey and colleagues, when describing H. habilis in 1964, suggested that one possibility was P. boisei was killed by H. habilis, perhaps as food. In baboons, this stage occurs when the 1st molar is about to erupt from the gums. The terms P. boisei sensu lato ("in the broad sense") and P. boisei sensu stricto ("in the strict sense") can be used to respectively include and exclude P. aethiopicus from P. boisei when discussing the lineage as a whole. This species had even larger cheek teeth than P. robustus,a flatter, bigger-brained skull than P. aethiopicus, and the thickest dental enamel of any known early human. Choose from 9 different sets of Paranthropus boisei DISC flashcards on Quizlet. Most notable is the forward placed root of the zygomatic arch, resulting in a wide flat face. Specimen Age: Young adult. The cranial capacity of this skull has been estimated at 510 cubic centimeters.  In 2015, based on OH 80, American palaeoanthropologist Michael Lague recommended assigning the isolated humerus specimens KNM-ER 739, 1504, 6020, and 1591 from Koobi Fora to P. Proponents of monophyly consider P. aethiopicus to be ancestral to the other two species, or closely related to the ancestor. In contrast, the P. robustus hand is not consistent with climbing. P. boisei was originally believed to have been a specialist of hard foods, such as nuts, due to its heavily built skull, but it was more likely a generalist feeder of predominantly abrasive C4 plants, such as grasses or underground storage organs. Specifically, P. boisei fossils have been found at sites in Tanzania (Olduvai … PLoS One 3, e2044. This species was nicknamed Nutcracker Man for its big teeth and strong chewing muscles, which attached to the large crest on the skull. Alternatively, by multiplying the density of either bovids, elephants, or hippos by the percentage of hominin remains out of total mammal remains found at the formation, Boaz estimated a density of 0.001–2.58 individuals per square kilometre. Two very different specimens were found in sediments of the same age (1.7 million years) in Koobi Fora, Turkana Basin in nothern Kenya: A complete but toothless cranium of Paranthropus boisei, KNM ER 406, discovered by Richard Leakey in 1968.; A complete cranium of Homo ergaster, KNM ER 3733, discovered by Bernard Ngeneo – in Richard Leakey’s team – in 1975.  The microwearing on P. boisei molars is different than that on P. robustus molars, and indicates that P. boisei, unlike P. robustus, very rarely ever ate hard foods. Broadly speaking, the emergence of the first permanent molar in early hominins has been variously estimated anywhere from 2.5 to 4.5 years of age, which all contrast markedly with the modern human average of 5.8 years. The premolars resemble molars (are molarised), which may indicate P. boisei required an extended chewing surface for processing a lot of food at the same time. The tips of the mesial cusps of the 1st molar (on the side closest to the premolar) of KNM-ER 1820 were at about the same level as the cervix (where the enamel meets the cementum) of its non-permanent 2nd premolar. Some skulls are markedly smaller than others, which is taken as evidence of sexual dimorphism where females are much smaller than males, though body size is difficult to estimate given only one specimen, OH 80, definitely provides any bodily elements. , Because P. boisei and P. aethiopicus are both known from East Africa and P. aethiopicus is only confidently identified from the skull KNM WT 17000 and a few jaws and isolated teeth, it is debated if P. aethiopicus should be subsumed under P. boisei or if the differences stemming from archaicness justifies species distinction. , In 1980, anthropologists Tom Hatley and John Kappelman suggested that early hominins (convergently with bears and pigs) adapted to eating abrasive and calorie-rich underground storage organs (USOs), such as roots and tubers.  In this model, P. boisei may have been a generalist feeder with a predilection for USOs, and may have gone extinct due to an aridity trend and a resultant decline in USOs in tandem with increasing competition with baboons and Homo. More finds have confirmed that this species was one of the most prevalent in Eastern Africa during the time period when early members of the genus Homo were also present. In 1979, a year after describing A. afarensis from East Africa, anthropologists Donald Johanson and Tim D. White suggested that A. afarensis was instead the last common ancestor between Homo and Paranthropus, and A. africanus was the earliest member of the Paranthropus lineage or at least was ancestral to P. robustus, because A. africanus inhabited South Africa before P. robustus, and A. afarensis was at the time the oldest known hominin species at roughly 3.5 million years old. Below are some of the still unanswered questions about P. boisei that may be answered with future discoveries: Leakey, L.S.B., 1959. Louis rejected Robinson's argument. The large teeth and massive jaw of Paranthropus boisei suggest the hominid ate hard objects, but the chemistry and wear on the teeth indicate the species consumed grasses or sedges. He later found material at Kromdraai, and because the molar teeth were more primitive at that site, he changed the species name at Swartkrans to P. crassidens but used P. robustus for the Kromdraai material.  In 1960, American anthropologist John Talbot Robinson pointed out that the supposed differences are due to OH 5 being slightly larger than P. robustus, and so recommended the species be reclassified as P. boisei.  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