Among these was Guṇabhadra's translation of the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra in four fascicles, which would also become important in the early history of Chan Buddhism. Der Fortschritt gegenüber der Madhyamika - Philosophie besteht darin, dass das Yogacara Nagarjunas Philosophie in den Rahmen eines kritischen Verständnisses des Bewusstseins stellt, sowie in der Erläuterung von drei Bewusstseinsebenen (pravṛtti-vijñāna, manana, ālayavijñāna), die entfernt an das Samkhyaerinnern, wobei es zu einer Erklärung des illusorischen Alltagsdenkens und -Sprechens gelangt. Translations of Indian Yogācāra texts were first introduced to China in the early fifth century. Get to know his work by visiting this link. In its place the ultimate reality reveals itself as the real, undifferentiated basis of all living beings. "[20], Different alternative translations for vijñapti-mātra have been proposed, such as representation-only, ideation-only, impressions-only and perception-only. Tokyo, 2001. According to the Saṅdhinirmocana Sūtra, this kind of consciousness underlies and supports the six types of manifest awareness, all of which occur simultaneously with the ālaya. These three characteristics are closely related to the "triple unreality" discussed in chapter 7. For this reason, Yogacara is sometimes called the "mind only" school. In the 8th century, a modified form of Yogacara merged with a modified form of Madhyamika, and this combined philosophy makes up a large part of the foundations of Mahayana today. The first half of this treatise analyzes the structure and the function of consciousness; the second elucidates the three-nature doctrine and the stages of practice. Yogacara students went through four stages of development. Hallucinations have no pragmatic results, efficacy or causal functions and thus can be determined to be unreal, but entities we generally accept as being "real" have actual causal results that cannot be of the same class as hallucinations. [100] Upon his return from India, Xuanzang brought with him 657 Buddhist texts, including important Yogācāra works such as the Yogācārabhūmi. Edited, collated, and translated by L. S. Kawamura in collaboration with G. M. Nagao. Asaṅga also went on to convert his brother Vasubandhu into the Mahāyāna Yogācāra fold. from Tibetan): These representations (vijñapti) are mere representations (vijñapti-mātra), because there is no [corresponding] thing/object (artha)...Just as in a dream there appear, even without a thing/object (artha), just in the mind alone, forms/images of all kinds of things/objects like visibles, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, houses, forests, land, and mountains, and yet there are no [such] things/objects at all in that [place]. Yogacara is not an easy philosophy to understand. This kind of awareness is about self-centered thinking that gives rise to selfish thoughts and arrogance. Thus the dependent character is related to the unreality of origination (utpatti-niḥsvabhāvatā). [74][note 1]. Der Begriff Yoga kann sowohl Vereinigung oder Integration bedeuten, als auch … Many Tathāgatagarbha texts, in fact, argue for the acceptance of selfhood (ātman) as a sign of higher accomplishment. ed. The Sākāra-vijñānavāda is doctrinally related to the Sautrāntika school, and a branch of the Nirākāra-vijñānavāda, represented by Śāntirakṣita (c. 725–788) and Kamalaśīla (c. 740–795), is united with the Mādhyamika. It does not deny the existence of individual beings and is against any idea of an absolute mind or monistic reality. As early as the fifth century some Yogācāra works were translated into Chinese, but a real interest in Yogācāra was not aroused until Bodhiruci (?–527) arrived in China in 508 and translated Vasubandhu's commentary on the Daśabhūmika Sūtra, the Shi di jing lun (T.D. Yamabe, Nobuyoshi (2004), "Consciousness, Theories of", in Buswell, Jr., Robert E., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, USA: Macmillan Reference USA, pp. As the name of the school suggests, meditation practice is central to the Yogācāra tradition. Glossary Yogācāra. The Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra ("Sūtra of the Explanation of the Profound Secrets"; 2nd century CE), was the seminal Yogācāra sutra and continued to be a primary referent for the tradition. The word "Yoga" literally means "union". It simultaneously acts as a storage place for karmic latencies and as a fertile matrix of predispositions that bring karma to a state of fruition. [22] For Wayman, what this doctrine means is that "the mind has only a report or representation of what the sense organ had sensed. Thus, he realizes that there is no real object to be "seized" (grāhya) and, consequently, that the consciousness as the "seizer" (grāhaka) is also devoid of reality. Un système de philosophie bouddhique: Materiaux pour l'étude du système Vijñaptimātra. 3d rev. MSg II.6[16]. [91] The harmonizing tendency can be seen in the work of philosophers like Jñānagarbha (8th century), his student Śāntarakṣita (8th century) and also in the work of the Yogācāra thinker Ratnakaraksanti (c. 1000). [2] Moreover, Western idealism lacks any counterpart to karma, samsara or awakening, which are central for Yogācāra. A human being is a stream of the consciousness complex, and the things that are thought to exist in the external world are but the images that appear in this stream of consciousness. [10] According to Bruce Cameron Hall, the interpretation of this doctrine as a form of subjective or absolute idealism has been "the most common "outside" interpretation of Vijñānavāda, not only by modern writers, but by its ancient opponents, both Hindu and Buddhist. Philosophical dialogue: Yogācāra, idealism and phenomenology. [53] The ālaya is defiled by this self-interest. [4], It was associated with Indian Mahayana Buddhism in about the fourth century,[5] but also included non-Mahayana practitioners of the Dārṣṭāntika school. While Madhyamaka works state that asserting the existence or non-existence of anything was inappropriate (including emptiness), Yogācāra treatises often assert that the dependent nature (paratantra-svabhāva) really exists and that emptiness is an actual absence that also exists. Important commentaries on various Yogācāra texts were written by Sthiramati (6th century) and Dharmapala of Nalanda (6th century), who represent different subschools of the tradition. Along with Madhyamaka, it was one of the two major philosophical schools of Mahāyāna Buddhism. 2 Stuttgart, 1990. "[2] This event is seen as the transformation of the basic mode of cognition into jñāna (knowledge, direct knowing), which is seen as a non-dual knowledge that is non-conceptual (nirvikalpa), i.e., "devoid of interpretive overlay". The core issue is whether appearances or “aspects” (rnam pa, ākāra) of objects in the mind are treated as true (bden pa, satya) or false (rdzun pa, alika). As an important contribution to East Asian Yogācāra, Xuanzang composed the Cheng Weishi Lun, or "Discourse on the Establishment of Consciousness Only. Besides the works of Asaṅga and Vasubandhu outlined above, the Yogācāra tradition as it is understood in Tibetan Buddhism is also based on a series of texts called the Five Dharmas of Maitreya. However, the uniformity of a single assumed "Yogācāra school" has been put into question. Yogācāra (T. rnal 'byor spyod pa; C. yuqiexíng pai; literally "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga") is one of the two main philosophical schools within Mahayana Buddhism (the other being Madhyamaka ). It should be noted that these "purified" cognitions all engage the world in immediate and effective ways by removing the self-bias, prejudice, and obstructions that had prevented one previously from perceiving beyond one's own narcissistic consciousness. Hookham and Paul Williams, their attribution to a single author has been questioned by modern scholars, especially the Abhisamayalankara and the Ratnagotravibhaga (which focuses on tathāgatagarbha). The Viṃśatikā repudiates the realist view that the image of an object in the consciousness has a corresponding reality in the external world and demonstrates that the image of an object appears in the consciousness as the result of a particular change (pariṇāma-viśeṣa) that occurs in the stream of the successive moments (saṃtati) of consciousness. The consciousness that arises in each moment with the image of an object is of dependent nature because its origination is dependent on the impressions of past experiences preserved in the ālaya-vijñāna. The Yogācāra school held a prominent position in Indian Buddhism for centuries after the time of the two brothers. In the last two works, the influence of the Sautrāntika school of Hīnayāna Buddhism is noticeable, but this is not the case with the commentaries. Consequently, it is known that the form of an object that appears in the consciousness does not belong to a thing in the external world but is attributed to the consciousness itself. What we think of as external objects are creations of consciousness. The perfected character is the "thusness" (tathatā) of things or the emptiness of intrinsic nature in things. From Sanskrit yogācāra, originally denoting the practitioner, lit. Yogācāra philosophy is primarily meant to aid in the practice of yoga and meditation and thus it also sets forth a systematic analysis of the Mahayana spiritual path (see five paths pañcamārga).Yogācārins made use of ideas from previous traditions, such as Prajñāpāramitā and the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma, to develop a new schema for spiritual practice. The consciousness that undergoes modification consists of three strata: (1) the six kinds of consciousness produced through the visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile senses and the mind; (2) the "I-consciousness," called manas, which accompanies the six kinds of consciousness; and (3) the subliminal consciousness, called ālaya-vijñāna ("store consciousness"), in which the "impressions" (vasana) of past experiences are accumulated as the "seeds" (bija) of future experiences. Realization of vijñapti-mātra exposes this trick intrinsic to consciousness's workings, thereby eliminating it. Jonathan Gold explains that "the three natures are all one reality viewed from three distinct angles. Dharmakīrti (c. 600–660) and Prajñākāragupta (c. eighth century) are recognized by both subschools as exponents of their respective doctrines. These are the Mahāyānasūtrālamkāra, Dharmadharmatāvibhāga, Madhyāntavibhāgakārikā, Abhisamayalankara and the Ratnagotravibhaga. The Prajñāpāramitā Sūtras teach the voidness, or the nonexistence, of all entities. However, Yogacara is a lot more than just saying that. There are several interpretations of this main theory, some scholars see it as a kind of Idealism while others argue that it is closer to a kind of phenomenology or representationalism. Walpola Rahula, quoted in Padmasiri De Silva, Robert Henry Thouless. Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra: L'explication des mystères. 楞伽宗, Léngqié Zōng), due to their strong association with the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra. [104] Yogācāra is studied in all schools of Tibetan Buddhism, though it receives different emphasis in each. This page was last edited on 9 February 2020, at 03:14. This equation was standard until recently, when it began to be challenged by scholars such as Kochumuttom, Anacker, Kalupahana,[123] Dunne, Lusthaus,[124] Powers, and Wayman. Lamotte, Étienne. [127] This sūtra draws heavily upon Yogācāra theories of the eight consciousnesses, especially the ālayavijñāna. 3. In disproving the possibility of external objects, Vasubandhu's Vimśatikā also attacks Indian theories of atomism and property particulars as incoherent on mereological grounds. According to Rahula, all the elements of this theory of consciousness with its three layers of Vijñāna are already found in the Pāli Canon:[55], Thus we can see that Vijñāna represents the simple reaction or response of the sense organs when they come in contact with external objects. Seshin yuishiki no genten kaimei. This consciousness, however, is not deemed to exist in the ultimate sense. Beings whose innate seeds had an indeterminate nature, and could potentially be any of the above. Seeing this will free us from the false conception of an 'I'. [8] Yogācārins made use of ideas from previous traditions, such as Prajñāpāramitā and the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma, to develop a new schema for spiritual practice. [7], Yogācāra philosophy is primarily meant to aid in the practice of yoga and meditation and thus it also sets forth a systematic analysis of the Mahayana spiritual path (see five paths pañcamārga). Yogācārins' sustained attention to issues such as cognition, consciousness, perception, and epistemology, coupled with claims such as "external objects do not exist," has led some to misinterpret … It developed within Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism circa the fourth century C.E. That by which the nondual reality is there. The Madhyāntavibhāga (Discrimination of the middle and the extremes), which gives the Yogācāra interpretation of the doctrine of voidness (śūnyatā), consists of about 110 verses and is divided into 5 chapters. "[2] In this way, instead of offering an ontological theory, Yogācāra focuses on understanding and eliminating the underlying tendencies (anuśaya) that lead to clinging to ontological constructions, which are just cognitive projections (pratibimba, parikalpita). 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With G. M. Nagao describe in detail how beings experience cognitions -- what is yogācāra not because of absolute... ; essentially, `` all things which can be known can be taken as corrective!
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