In the early 21st century, there are concerns related to the dike's stability because studies have indicated long-term problems with "piping" and erosion. A Cape Verde-type hurricane, hurricane analysis in the 1990s determined the storm likely formed four days prior between the Cape Verde Islands and the coast of Africa. Many trees were uprooted and several buildings were impacted, including the hospital and a number of businesses. Winds approached 120 mph (193 km/h) at Nassau before the anemometer failed. The anemometer located in Puerta de Tierra lost one of its cups at 11:44 am on September 13, just when it had registered a maximum speed of 150 mph (240 km/h) —a speed that was sustained for five consecutive minutes. Most of the food crops were destroyed. On the island of Dominica, winds were clocked at 24 mph (39 km/h); there were no reports of damage,[2] though one fatality occurred. Gunn: “The hurricane San Felipe Segundo, named after the saint’s day on which it did so much damage to Puerto Rico, but better known as the Okeechobee Hurricane, was the first recorded hurricane to reach category 5 status. In the city, more than 1,711 homes were destroyed; the effects were most severe around Lake Okeechobee. [2] Nearly all small frame houses were destroyed in Deerfield Beach, while several citizens estimated that at least 50% of homes were demolished. Towns in the path of the storm were “blown off the map.” The U.S. War Department reported that “the results of years of private and public enterprise were obliterated in a few hours.”. In contrast, the bodies of black victims were burned in funeral pyres or thrown into mass burial sites such as the ones in West Palm Beach and Port Mayaca. About 48 hours later, the storm strengthened and became a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. This is an unprecedented atmospheric system,” said Puerto Rico Governor Ricardo Rosselló, in a statement on Tuesday. The storm was named the San Felipe II hurricane in Puerto Rico because the eye of the cyclone made landfall there on September 13, the Roman Catholic feast day of Saint Philip,[13] father of Saint Eugenia of Rome. [13], After affecting Puerto Rico, the hurricane passed just north of the Dominican Republic, causing very little damage. This is actually the second time a major hurricane had been documented to strike Puerto Rico on that date, the other being in 1876. [2] On this basis, the hurricane is believed to have made landfall in Puerto Rico as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, although there was uncertainty in the peak intensity, due to the large size and slow movement of the storm. In Boynton Beach, about 75% of businesses suffered complete destruction. Damage in the city totaled about $150,000. Around 75% of the fatalities were migrant farm workers, making identification of both the dead and missing very difficult; as a result of this, the count of the dead is not very accurate. The cyclone remains one of three Atlantic hurricanes to strike the southern mainland of Florida with a central pressure below 940 mbar (27.76 inHg), the others being the 1926 Miami hurricane and Hurricane Andrew of 1992. Hurricane "San Felipe II" Puerto Rico was devastated by the storm and the towns were the eye passed directly over were the worst affected with many places becoming unrecognizable after the event. [23] When the worst of the storm crossed the lake, the south-blowing wind caused a storm surge to overflow the small dike that had been built at the south end of the lake. [20], In Lake Worth, approximately 50% of homes were damaged or destroyed, while 75% of buildings in the business district suffered damage. While the states hit by Maria have generally rebuilt and life has largely returned to normal, Puerto Rico is still coping with the devastating damage of Hurricane Maria. De acuerdo con los récords históricos, el huracán más poderoso en tocar tierra puertorriqueña fue San Felipe II, que cruzó la Isla de sureste a noroeste en 1928. Winds were measured at 159 miles per hour, but they became stronger and were later estimated at 200 miles per hour. It then turned west-northwestward, scoring a direct hit on Puerto Rico on the 13th (the feast of San Felipe) as a Category 4 hurricane. These two agricultural products were at that time the foundation of Puerto Rico’s economy. Mar-a-Lago suffered few effects other than uprooted trees and the destruction of a large Roman-style window, according to Marjorie Merriweather Post. Twenty other residents took refuge in a building which lost its roof during the storm, forcing the occupants to move into the restroom. Puerto Rico still belonged to Spain at that time. Hurricane warnings were also posted for the west coast from Punta Rassa to Apalachicola, and after the storm recurved, hurricane warnings were extended along the east coast to Jacksonville. According to some estimates of the day, excluding personal losses, the damages reached $85.312 million and more than 500,000 people were left homeless. The coffee industry would take years to recover since coffee needs shade trees to grow. Additionally, about 11,500 families would need to be "re-established". [29] Overall, 27 deaths occurred in Okeechobee County. Two cyclones have been given both women's and saint's names: Hurricane Betsy (Santa Clara, August 12, 1956) and Hurricane Donna (San Lorenzo, September 5, 1960). Nine deaths were reported, six of which occurred in a schoolhouse collapse. Buildings with well-constructed frames, and those made of steel, concrete, brick, or stone, were largely immune to winds. Two boats were wrecked as they washed ashore in Grand Turk, although the crews were saved. Los daños en la industria azucarera fueron cuantiosos. It moved westward through the Leeward Islands on the 12th. In Lake Worth, 25 people were treated for various injuries at the Gulf Stream Hotel and the local fire station. [22] At the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse, the mortar was reportedly "squeezed ... like toothpaste" from between the bricks during the storm, swaying the tower 17 in (430 mm) off the base. Famine and disease threaten the island, where thouands are now homeless. At least 100 people were brought to Miami for medical treatment. [6], While the storm was passing near Dominica, the San Juan, Puerto Rico Weather Bureau warned about the threat of the hurricane which would strike the island within a day or two. Pierluisi (blue) won the Governors race with 33%…, *STATEHOOD-Puerto Rico and DC (District of Columbia)** The Federal Government should NOT tie STATEHOOD for Puerto Rico to the District…, If Puerto Rico has a chance to become a State is now with this coming installed administration. Early on September 18, a train leaving Miami carried 20 doctors and 20 nurses to West Palm Beach. Official reports stated "several hundred thousand" people were left homeless, and property damages were estimated at $50 million. There were 312 deaths reported in Puerto Rico (though estimates of the actual death toll were as high as 1,000) and estimates of $50,000,000 in property damage. Farmers experienced economic hardship across the U.S. at the beginning of the 20th century, and a variety of federal programs were developed to support agriculture, but Puerto Rico was generally not included in these programs. The crew, who were immigrants, were rescued by the Coast Guard and later deported. [41] After the hurricane became extratropical, its wind field became very large. “El huracán de Septiembre 10-17, 1928”. Dr. W. A. Claxton, chief of the Miami Department of Public Welfare, requested antitoxin, typhoid serum, and at least 200 tetanus serums. Regaining a position as a territory far poorer than any of the 50 States may not be the goal for Puerto Rico this time around. [6] Approximately 85%–95% of banana crops were destroyed, 70%–80% of tree crops suffered severe damage, and 40% of the sugar cane crop was ruined. This classic Cape Verde hurricane was first detected over the tropical Atlantic on September 10, although it likely formed several days earlier. Houses were floated off their foundations and dashed to pieces against any obstacles encountered. [2], The hurricane moved directly over the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean Sea, strengthening as it did so. Casi ningun edificio quedo en pie. Nearly 3,000 people were killed in Puerto Rico and Florida by Felipe. At 08:00 UTC on September 18, the storm again reached open waters. President Calvin Coolidge asked Americans to contribute to the American Red Cross in support of their fellow citizens in Puerto Rico. The advisory was sent via telegraph to 75 police districts and was broadcast from the naval radio station every two hours;[11] this was the first hurricane warning broadcast by radio. Observers in 1935 described Puerto Rico’s farmers as experiencing “mental depression” because of the long, hard times of recovery. Walker, along with his brother, Haughty D. Walker (a.k.a. The eye at landfall was 25 mi (40 km) wide, and after moving inland crossed Lake Okeechobee, where a calm was reported for 30 minutes. However, in 2003, the U.S. death count was revised to "at least" 2,500, making the Okeechobee hurricane one of the deadliest natural disasters in United States history. Because these measurements were taken 30 mi (48 km) from San Felipe's eye, at the time, it seemed possible that some estimates of 200 mi (320 km) per hour near the center of the storm were not overdrawn. However, brick and concrete dwellings suffered little damage. There was federal assistance, though the federal government did not yet have a concerted plan for dealing with natural disasters. Hurricane Felipe in 1928 was followed within a couple of years by the stock market crash and the Great Depression. Most of the houses were swept away into rows of pine trees and others more than half a mile (0.8 km) away. Great Hurricane of 1780; 1804 Antigua–Charleston hurricane; 1867 San Narciso hurricane; 1876 San Felipe hurricane; 1899 San Ciriaco hurricane; 1928 Okeechobee hurricane; 1930 Dominican Republic hurricane; 1932 San Ciprián hurricane What about rebuilding of homes and businesses and public buildings? [37] In Fort Pierce, most of the effects were confined to the waterfront areas. [13], There was general destruction through the island, with the towns where the eye passed being swept away. Advance warning reduced the number of ships traversing the region. The town's post office, depot, and an entire business block were also destroyed. It took Puerto Rico a decade to recover. At least 160 fatalities occurred in the city. On September 6, ships reported a tropical depression developing just off the west coast of Africa near Dakar, Senegal. It is estimated if a similar storm were to strike as of the year 2003, it would cause $18.7 billion in damages. Nearby, the Rainbow Pier had only structural damage to its railings, though the pier office was blown away. 1928: The San Felipe II Hurricane Hits Puerto Rico Surface analysis of the 1928 San Felipe II hurricane, also known as the Okeechobee hurricane, nearing Puerto Rico as a Category 5 hurricane. Minor damage was reported on Rum Cay. The storm made landfall near West Palm Beach, Florida, early on September 17, with winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). [46], African-American writer Zora Neale Hurston explored the effects of the hurricane on black migrant workers in her seminal 1937 novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God. Precipitation from the hurricane itself caused Lake Okeechobee to rise further. At least 2,500 people drowned, while damage was estimated at $25 million. A short distance to the north, a warehouse was flattened. For example, they named the Great Hurricane of 1780 as San Calixto, after Saint Callixtus, whose feast day is October 14; the 1867 San Narciso hurricane, the 1899 San Ciriaco hurricane, and the 1932 San Ciprian hurricane were also named after the saints' feast days on which they occurred (respectively, Saint Narcissus of Jerusalem on October 29, Saint Cyriacus on August 8, and Saint Cyprian on September 26). Similar damage was reported at the Royal Victoria Hotel, while the British Colonial Hotel was largely spared. To the east of the town, the merchant ship Albatros sank; it had been carrying 80 casks of rum. Effective preparation is credited for the relatively low death toll of 312, and not a single ship was lost at sea in the vicinity of Puerto Rico. A temporary ferry service across the St. Lucie River was established and operated until repairs to the bridge were complete in the summer of 1929. The 1928 storm, a Category 5 like Hurricane Maria, hit Puerto Rico on September 13th, 1928, with winds estimated at 160 mph or higher. Until Hurricane Maria 89 years later, San Felipe II was officially classified as Puerto Rico's biggest, worst, and most devastating hurricane to ever have hit the island. This hurricane affected the islands in the south. “San Felipe — The Hurricane of September 13, 1928, at San Juan, P.R.” MWR, pp. [46] This was the only mass gravesite to receive a timely memorial.[47]. Sugar factories were reduced to rubble and the entire coffee crop was lost. This was the first recorded Category 5 hurricane in American history. It developed off the west coast of Africa on September 6 as a tropical depression, but it strengthened into a tropical storm later that day, shortly before passing south of the Cape Verde islands. [16], In addition to the human fatalities, 1,278 livestock and 47,389 poultry were killed, respectively. In 1928, the Category 5 San Felipe Segundo hurricane hit Puerto Rico in September, and the storm also known as the Okeechobee hurricane ruined hundreds of thousands of homes. Others who survived were swept far away from the original sites of the building and the barge. After this hurricane, Puerto Rico never regained its position as a major coffee exporter. ... Sep 13, 1928. “No generation has seen a hurricane like this since San Felipe II in 1928. [6] Ninety-nine people died in that town. The Okeechobee hurricane of 1928, also known as the San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was one of the deadliest hurricanes in the recorded history of the North Atlantic basin, and the third deadliest hurricane in the United States, only behind the 1900 Galveston hurricane and Hurricane Maria. A teenage boy was carried from the packinghouse to the Everglades Experiment Station in Belle Glade – a distance of about 8 mi (13 km). It is much easier for people to leave Puerto Rico for the States, and much easier to communicate with distant places. Early on the following day, the system weakened to a tropical storm and became an extratropical cyclone over North Carolina hours later. 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