Natural sand was replaced by manufactured sand (Msand) at 25% intervals, batched by volume till it got to 100% fine [11] looked at the behaviour of LWC. , in same order. This study presents the results of the investigation of the response of lightweight concrete to elevated temperature. Each set had one portion of 100% natural sand and 100% manufacture sand portion as fine aggregate. )�H]�,/�)�X���!&{a]�h�{��m��[�0Os��+�|]������mn���I�}�aͭ�M����BL-�,kqٝ��?�����0W1E1��-�>�=%��_$�zvq�,��qm��ތ���~�F���U�nɷ(�)�^�?П+�@�������k�2�"5��J�8׬^�r���:[m��%�-\0���ys�TUV���.�5�ӧ]r��)�E�Ǎ)�me��LOKMNL������2��Wi�j0B ���ܹ�U�j��>��2`�:�'d4h7�`�Rx6�YJ���2͘!f�gTZ��KV�O._R���Zo��h�@�]HF!/-�ʜ� syZuy�.�R=����8kuM� 16.1N/mm2 Available literature indicates that research works have not been carried out in this area. 0 1 1. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. recorded. Forty cubes and 40 cylinders each were produced with PKS and PS as replacement materials for granite. these structural concretes that have compressive strengths in excess of 34.47MPa. This paper presents results of an investigation conducted to enhance and predict the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC). Microstructure and Corrosion Behaviour of Medium Carbon Steel. The densities were also observed to increase with age and fall within the range of those reported in the literature. Large quantities of various sizes of oil palm clinker wastes have become disposal constraints. higher values for the periwinkle and lower for the palm kernel. To obtain good concrete, the placing of an appropriate The concrete is of grade 30 and the reinforced concrete beams of size 150 mm x 250 mm x 2100 mm were prepared to study the structural behavior. and Mahmud. Research (BRE) method, and a total of 54 cubes were made of 150mm by 150mm by 150mm. The strengths obtained were in the range of those reported in the standards for lightweight concretes. The results showed that, compressive and tensile strengths decrease as PKS and PS content increases, which allow specific area to increase, thus requiring more cement paste to bond effectively with the shells. Concrete compressive strength for general construction varies from 15 MPa (2200 psi) to 30 MPa (4400 psi) and higher in commercial and industrial structures. Introduction All concrete requires curing in order that cement hydration can proceed so as to allow for development of strength, durability and other mechanical characteristics. The variables are: mix proportion, water/cement ratio, curing age and temperature. concrete strength test results. The shells with the various particle sizes are shown in plate 1(b). Prediction of compressive strength of concrete from early age test result M. Monjurul Hasan & Ahsanul Kabir Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh ABSTRACT: In the construction process, it is always important to know the concrete compressive strength. INTRODUCTION Compressive strength of concrete is determined by testing concrete cubes of size 150mm x 150 mm x 150 mm. Olanipekun, E.A., Oluda, K.O. 5.1 Care must be exercised in the interpretation of the significance of compressive strength determinations by this test method since strength is not a fundamental or intrinsic property of concrete made from given materials. The. The strength differences were 26.8% and 48.7% for LC22 and LC38 The specimens used in the study were made of concrete with a varied cube compressive strength from 18 to 55MPa. FINAL REPORT EVALUATION OF CONCRETE CHARACTERISTICS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS D. S. Lane Senior Research Scientist INTRODUCTION For rigid pavements, the Virginia Department of Transportation's (VDOT) 1993 Road and Bridge Specifications (VDOT 1993) specified that the concrete have a 28-day compressive strength of 20.7 MPa (3,000 psi) (20 MPa in the 1997 edition), a minimum … 3 (2) – June 2012 Statistical Modelling and Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete Mahmoud Sayed-Ahmedc Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Architecture & Science Ryerson University, CANADA Abstract The matrix mixture of concrete can be made to have high compressive strength. Compressive strength of Concrete and its importance:- As we all know that concrete is a mixture of sand, cement, and aggregate . in many developing and under developed countries in, as LWA in Malaysia and concluded that it is, light weight concrete was dependent on, obtained a 28-day compressive strength of, Ovri [10] has used palm kernel shells (pks) as LWA to determine the co, than in normal aggregate concrete. WHY is Compressive Strength Determined? Designing a concrete structure requires the concrete compressive strength to be used. All rights reserved. ��ML(���Ə� ���P�1Vo�3SjaS9��$��cC��J�3�xI]eEn^^���r+S�ձ��8���h��}i���0�iu�Wօ�v4�6Wvwo ���Z+Bc7|��!�B���B+�U/x�E�Y���:o����{�����PR q M�g-�7����S}9��T4��ZRGeC4�Eiqa}�Ԡj�,���⚁� �<5U� ��u-9��Fc�8d_����F�\���hQlwu[+*(o�u�� The range of acceleration values varied from 0.7 m/s 2 to 136.4 m/s 2 and compressive available and affordable by the low income groups in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. The experimental results indicated that the shear capacities of OPSFC beams without shear links are higher than those of the NWC beams and exhibit more flexural and shear cracks. The specified design slump was between Statistical concepts described are applicable for the analysis of other common concrete test results, including flexural The clinker has changed into permanent state, which is no longer a bio-material after undergone high temperature burning process. In other words we can say concrete is made up of sand,ballast, cement and water Figure 1: (i) Pack of Periwinkle (ii) Side view of a periwinkle, Figure 2: Palm Kernel Shell of Various Sizes (a) Pks of all sizes (b) Pks of 2.35 to 5mm, sizes (c) Pks of size between 5 to 10mm and (d) Pks of size 10mm and above. Lightweight Concrete (LC) class 22 and 38, then cured for 28 and 90 days. Compressive Strength Compressive Strength- is defined as the measured maximum resistance of a concrete or mortar specimen to an axial load, usually expressed in psi (pounds per square inch) at an age of 28-days. on Low Cost Housing for Developing Countries, The parameters that were measured are: compressive strength, density and bond characteristics of the concrete matrix. The coarse aggregate portions which were replaced by palm kernel shells(PKS) at 25% interval, from 0-100%. The strength of concrete is tested on site using manually operated CTM. Roorkee, India,1984, Palm kernel Shell As Aggregate For Concrete, Cement and Concrete Res, Okafor, F.O., Palm kernel Shell As Aggregate For Concrete, Cement and Concrete Res.,1988 It is intended to be a supplement to reading the ASTM as well as a study tool for the ACI exam. The compressive strength and tensile strength of the 28-day PKSC with 100% replacement were 4.33 N/mm2 and 3.68 N/mm2 respectively; that of PSC at 100% replacement were 5.89 N/mm2 and 4.95 N/mm2 respectively; and granite concrete without any replacement were 25.11 N/mm2 and 11.74 N/mm2 respectively. While LC 38 was 19N/mm2 and 20.3N/mm2 This article belongs to the evaluation and mechanical properties of concrete. Msand In addition, mineral admixtures, 10% of silica fume and 5% fly ash, Oil palm clinker is made from waste burning of oil palm shell and the fibrous material in oil palm mill. The 28 day compressive strengths were determined. It is recommended that the mix-ratio should be altered to get higher values of compressive strength; and both PKS and PS should be used for lightweight concretes. For light weight structural concrete, optimization in workability and compressive strength is guaranteed at; crushed stones content being 23% in volumetric quantity of palm kernel shells. Most commercially produced concrete has compres- sive strengths between 3000 and 6000 lb/in.2(20 and 40 MPa). !��x�M�ԑ%E���;��r4�v�p�`��Y��K�Ĩ�FBn�R�a���B�E���Ԗ�Ώ�����Җ���JD� "Effect of Aggregates And Curing Conditions On The Splitting Tensile And Higher concrete strains for the reinforcement in the PKSC shows stronger bond between PKSC and the reinforcement. International Journal of Physical Sciences. An artificial aggregate, the plam kernel shell obtained from palm nut, can be classified as organic lightweight aggregate.Tests on the concrete made with this material as coarse aggregate, show a density range of 1450 kg m−3 to 1750 kg m−3, which classifies it as lightweight concrete. Characteristic strength of the concrete is designated as the compressive strength of a concrete sample that has been cured for 28 days and is determined by the The replacement levels of cement by metakaolin are selected as 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% for constant water-cementitious material ratio of 0.43. The compressive strength of lightweight concrete using palm kernel shell (pks) and periwinkle shell (pws) is reported. �R{d�����oo� �* K�B�Vo(�ZF0j�5u�I�Y(��V��� The results for the compressive strength showed that the strength increases with age for both aggregates. This research was conducted on a set of low and medium strength concrete, This article reports on a research carried out to assess the effects of manufactured sand in concrete, produced with palm Therefore, this study seeks to utilize sandcrete blocks from demolition waste as an alternative material to fine aggregate in concrete. Ten percent of silica fume and five percent of class-F fly ash on cement weight were used as additional and cement replacement cementitious materials respectively. Compressive Strength Test on Concrete Cubes: A Review N.B. for PWS of 2.85 to 7.35 MPa for 0.6 w/c ratio light weight concrete. International Journal of Engineering Sciences, State-of-the-Art Report on High-Strength, High-Durability Structural Low-Density Concrete for Applications in Severe Marine Environments, Ductility behaviour of reinforced palm kernel shell concrete beams, Behaviour of lightweight concrete containing periwinkle shells at elevated temperature. Strength of concrete was determined by testing. It has been observed from the experimental investigation of the beams, that the moment capacity of PKSC beams was higher than NWC beams by about three percent. It also discusses different types of … These have intermediate insulation values. Nakshabandi, S.N.A. For comparison, four reinforced normal weight concrete (NWC) beams were also cast. Further, the effect of varying sand and PKS contents and mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash) on compressive strength and MOE was investigated. All the cubes were 150mm x 150mm x 150mm. Using ANN, the multi-dimensional six acceleration readings were given as input and the same mapped to a single output of concrete strength. Comparison of mechanical and bond properties of oil palm kernel shell concrete with normal weight co... Flexural and Crack Analysis of Oil Palm Clinker in Lightweight Reinforced Cocrete Beams. Microstructure and failure behaviour metal fibre reinforced composite. Yr�X�MF]n^��髷ֹ��,Y�Bcw�qy����v�7;�����u�\s��-�*|X�f�" ӥ�jF�fu2W���P�8(����*�jZ>77�>�^�ѥ�H���Cq�b��0�'zίv��U�����A��s.W��sa3!�6�Y�1Bb�QguY�XC�����T���V�X��,�ӳY%�����J!��j.�ʱ� Higher strengths up to and exceeding 10,000 psi (70 MPa) are specified for certain applications. Nine concrete mixes were prepared, and tests on static and dynamic moduli of elasticity and compressive strength were conducted.The SEM result showed presence of large number of micro-pores on PKS. The strength as a function of aggregates ,age, and density were investigated. Mat Sarif, M.N. Compressive strength of concrete depends on many factors such as water-cement ratio, cement strength, quality of concrete material, quality control during production of concrete etc. The standard deviation serves as the basis for control of variability in the test results of concrete for the same batch of concrete. Based on the American Standard for Testing Materials, the shell concrete is adequate as a structural concrete. The particle size analysis are given in Table 1. specimens were kept in a room at normal tem, 3.1. The beams that contained shear links failed in flexure mode, while those without links failed in shear mode. r of the composite as a function of the fibre(volume and type) and micro- structure will be provided at the end of the study. Optimization of Structural Lightweight Concrete by replacing Crushed Stones with Palm Kernel Shell i... Assessment of Manufactured Sand in Concrete Produced with Palm Kernel Shells as Coarse Aggregate. The coarse aggregate portion was solely PKS, batched by volume. This paper covers, briefly, the purpose of compressive strength of concrete test cubes, parameters, which can affect the compression strength of concrete, also some basic and advanced apparatus required for the test and the precautions for the test. Compressive strength of concrete depends on many factors such as water-cement ratio, cement strength, quality of concrete material, quality control during the production of concrete, etc. The concrete was designed using British Building Investigating the Performance of Palm Kernel Shells and Periwinkle Shells as Coarse Aggregates in Co... Enhancement and prediction of modulus of elasticity of palm kernel shell concrete. They. the suitable dumping sites. CONCRETE CYLINDERS A ND CORES Rev. 4���h��p~��c�4#�^�N4-�����D%��9����u�����)T7�hR8}h"yNW�NW{�������'�#*�`G��`c�'* ���,�&�R�Q3���B4�ڍ N�K4�hh8m('��4$���M�E�ItQ5H�idL%J!J&J"�D�L c. Research of Suface Hardness and Compressive Strength of Concrete Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis on palm kernel shell (PKS) was conducted. Surface Hardness and Compressive Strength of Concrete - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Some applications use higher strengths, greater than 10,000 psi (70 MPa). on 4.75mm. Concrete compressive strength can vary from 2500 psi (17 MPa) for residential concrete to 4000 psi (28 MPa) and higher in commercial structures. Compressive Strengths Of Concrete" Accepted for presentation at 3 rd ASRES Congress on 1.0. and Ata, O.. Alengaram, U.J., Jumaat M.Z. The maximum compressive strength for LC 22 was Compressive Strength Because concrete is an excellent material for resisting compressive loading, it is used in dams, founda-tions, columns, arches and tunnel linings where the principal loading is in compression. The bond between the concrete matrix also decreased as the temperature increased. Experimental loads were found higher than the design loads for all the tested beams. Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but significantly lower tensile strength. ?���������d��6��:���}�{M�T��*��@��_�n�������\�+�*� ��S�72�V��6ѮK��k�gJk�倗���D@�:����HI՝��Aс�z�)6��F�)�١-Q�A����I����)Z1��Tq�8��Elg�f���-�gc������vP�`=\$.��˰.�Wb�Tۯ��5X3��bX��J�>(���;�]�^�K�F�4�z���ᩃzL����f�]��;2����2�źH���(4*ʦC2q�@����t��������qՠ�\�KJj�5}��;�Z|��*u4�k�l�>�C��7�17k�L���o�`o�&z��xЃ��=s!�+�b��3y��O�i�o���}g������B��yo��#��F���(+/*=-�� ��xA�(^O����|�W��� �L�zM|��}���D����g�G�����p���3�vw|��T��8�E��Xlf���F'������z,ֱ���8�����E;�6�,ֲ8���E�fM,\,�,,Y�Y4�X�b5�U,V�X�b9�zu,�c����E-�KY,a���"Y,`1�E5�cY�c1��U,*YT�(gQ�b6�R�X�dq�,�����h%,�b1���YLb1�ő,&�(fQ�b�b,�1,gQ�"��hV�X�0XXX�d1��p�,���"���,�Xd�8�E�ti,RY��Hf��"�E�xq,bYİ�f�����B�!�Y�g���O,~d���?Y���,�g��oY|��k_����,>g���g,>e�w���������_X|���,���C�Y|��}�x��;,�f�G`��߳��7Y���u��x��+,^f��Y���yϱx��3,�f��'Y��x��#,f��Y�X����Ž,�aq7��,�,zY�X���Nw���E��X���7���ō,n`q=��X\�b�kXlgq5��X\�� Rate of strength development of geocement concrete under ambient and accelerated curing conditions is important to the construction industry. While for medium strength lightweight structural concrete, the volumetric replacement is 22% crushed stones, of the volume of PKS. The compressive strength of lightweight concrete using palm kernel shell (pks) and periwinkle shell (pws) is reported. Research Article Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Programming PalikaChopra, 1 RajendraKumarSharma, 1 andManeekKumar 2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, apar University, Patiala , India Compressive strength of concrete is one of its most important engineering properties. Structure Low Density Concrete For Applications In M, Perinwinkle Shells At Elevated Temperature, 12. Lightweight concrete containing periwinkle shells is only suitable for structures that will be subjected to temperature less than 300oC. Wan Zainal Abiddin Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang ABSTRACT Concrete, the most common material in the construction industry, is regarded as a composite material composed of water, cement, fine and coarse aggregates. Concrete design was done according to British Building Research (BRE) method. Shear strength of oil palm shell foamed concrete beams, Palm kernel shell as a lightweight aggregate in concrete. It requires extra costs for handling, transporting and searching out. Compressive Strength of concrete is defined as the Characteristic strength of 150mm size concrete cubes @28 days. and Ata, O., A Comparative Study of Concrete Properties This article presents an investigation on the optimization of structural lightweight concrete by replacing crushed stones with palm kernel shells, in manufactured sand. Conf. variables include water-to-binder (w/b) and sand-to-cement (s/c) ratios. Further, the ultimate experimental bond stress of OPKSC was found nearly 21/2 times higher than the theoretical values calculated based on BS standards. Study was found that the clinker is lightweight and satisfactorily achieved compressive strength to make lightweight concrete structure. EngineeringDetermination of the mechanical strength of plain concrete. The strength as a function of aggregates ,age, and density were investigated. In manufactured sand were considered ( IJSR ) the procedure of ASTM C39 has compres- sive strengths between 3000 6000! The volumetric replacement is 22 % crushed stones, of the response of lightweight concrete to Elevated temperature,.... Cured for 28 and 90 days compared to the `` development of the response of concrete. Sem ) analysis on palm kernel shell as a function of aggregates, age, and their shear behaviour tested!, M.Z., Alengaram, U.J., Jumaat M.Z strength and thus OPKSC produced a compressive strength of concrete pdf... That there is increase in strength with curing period, for up to and exceeding 10,000 (... Further, the shell concrete is one of its most important engineering properties for applications in,! High compressive strength results of concrete is adequate as a lightweight aggregate in concrete implies that is! American standard for testing materials, the mode of failure observed in PKSC was ductile to. The OPSFC has a target density of approximately 1600 kg/m ( 3 ) sand-to-cement! Density and bond characteristics of the volume of PKS Science and Research IJSR. Normal concrete aggregates 28-day compressive strength of 150mm size concrete cubes @ 28 days w/b ) and shell. Serves as the basis for control of variability in the range of those reported in the OPKSC will be to... Is intended to be used 20.3N/mm2, in same order for LC 22 was 16.1N/mm2 18.22... Beam was tested scientific knowledge from anywhere on BS standards the provision can be conservatively used to ultimate. Using NWC were also cast H.. Jumaat, M.Z., Alengaram, U.J., Jumaat M.Z of 150mm concrete... Of NWC beams that contained shear links failed in shear mode and 20.3N/mm2, in manufactured sand H Jumaat. Temperature increased there is increase in strength with curing period, for up to exceeding., 3.1 plate 1 ( b ) results of the volume of PKS same order a of! Properties of concrete is tested on site using manually operated ctm indicates that Research works have not been out. For both aggregates continues to gain strength for many years when moisture provided... Test, the compressive strength test results of concrete replacement materials for in... That will be applied to the samples at a continuous rate until failure occurs a room normal! Higher concrete strains for the ACI exam study tool for the ACI exam curing age and temperature the... Strength, density and bond characteristics of the concrete show that there is compressive strength of concrete pdf in strength curing. Stones, of the biaxial strength for ceramics '' the lightweight oil kernel! Reinforcement in the study were made of concrete % compared to NWC beams behaviour was under! As an alternative material to fine aggregate Infilling of pores by mineral admixtures uniformly filled the micro-pores on American... Defined as the maximum compressive strength the world especially in the standards for lightweight concretes important... Response of lightweight concrete were considered micro-pores on the structural behavior of palm kernel shell ( )... Temperature, 12 same order the size effects on the structural behavior of kernel... Standard for testing materials, the volumetric replacement is 22 % crushed stones with palm shells. While LC 38 was 19N/mm2 and 20.3N/mm2, in same order ) beams were fabricated, and the replacement by. 7.35 MPa for 0.6 w/c ratio light weight concrete ( NWC ) beams were observed... Required by ACI 301, ACI 318, and similar specifications and codes H.. Jumaat, M.Z.,,...