Set on the Bay of Bengal and first developed from the British Fort St. George, the site of the modern city of Chennai was once home to a collection of fishing and agricultural villages. As the East India Company controlled the trade in the area, these non-British merchants established agreements with the Company for settling on Company land near "White Town" per agreements with the Nayak. In fact, in all records of the times, a difference is made between the original village of Madraspatnam and the new town growing around the Fort known as "White Town". Overview. With an estimated population of 8.9 million (2014), the 400-year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world. Photo credit: Flickr/Balu Velachery/ Similar to the versions of the origin of the name. It was considered as a part of the empire of the King of Chandragiri, the period when the British arrived in 1639 A.D. Further; it was named as Chennapattanam by the British when they acquired it from Chennappa Nayaka, the leader of Vijayanagar. Sivaraja Pillai, Sri.S. Therefore, because of the fort's proximity or origin to the village of Mandraspatnam, and the fort's centrality to the development of the city, the British settlers of the city later named their settlement Madras in honour of it. This area became the Fort St. George settlement. Other prominent companies in the city included Gordon Woodroffe, Best & Crompton, Higginbotham's, Hoe & Co and P. Orr & Sons. Earlier, Panagal Raja, Chief Minister of Madras Presidency in the early 1920s had suggested that the Cooum River be the boundary between the Tamil and Telugu administrative areas. Both groups strived to grow their colonial populations and although their populations reached 10,000 people when the British arrived, they remained substantially outnumbered by the local Indian population. Bibliography on Tamil History, Ethnicity, Culture, Srilankan Tamils and Tamilnadu Politics, posted by Tamil Electronic Library ... Madras Presidency, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1928 pp.158-159 (data of 1926-1928); India and Dependencies : Madras States, ibid. The English Factors at Masulipatam were satisfied with Francis Day's work. Chennai, originally known as "Madras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. My Thoughts on Life, Travels and Culture. These settlers and their families spread throughout India or settled in the cities, with Madras being one of their principal entry points. [13], Various etymologies have been posited for the name, Chennai or Chennapattanam. Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu The Home rule Movement in Madras was organized by Mrs. Annie Besant between 1916 and 1918.The first indication of Annie Besant’s decision to launch a Home Rule Movement appeared in New India in September 1915. Today, Chennai also has a growing expatriate population especially from the United States, Europe and East Asia who work in the industries and IT centres. In the same year, former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, a small town close to Chennai, whilst campaigning in Tamil Nadu, by Thenmuli Rajaratnam A.K.A. May 21, 2019 - 525 Likes, 7 Comments - Brown History (@brownhistory) on Instagram: “Portrait of a seated girl wearing Jewellery, from Madras in Tamil Nadu - 1872” [12] In 1953, the political and administrative dominance of Tamils, both at the Union and State levels ensured that Madras was not transferred to the new state of Andhra. Under the Kings, local chiefs or governors known as Nayaks ruled over each district. Following the British victory in the Seven Years' War they eventually dominated, driving the French, the Dutch and the Danes away entirely, and reducing the French dominions in India to four tiny coastal enclaves. Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, the local governor of the Vijayanagar Empire and Nayaka of Wandiwash (Vandavasi), ruled the coastal part of the region, from Pulicat to the Portuguese settlement of San Thome. Today, they are the … However, other national groups, chiefly FrenchPortuguese, and other Catholic merchants had separate agreements with the Nayak which allowed them in turn to establish trading posts, factories, and warehouses. He was the local governor for the last Raja of Chandragiri, Sri Ranga Raya VI of Vijayanagar Empire. During World War I, Madras (Chennai) was shelled by the German light cruiser SMS Emden, resulting in 5 civilian deaths and 26 wounded. After the fall of Golkonda in 1687, the region came under the rule of the Mughal Emperors of Delhi who in turn granted new Charters and territorial borders for the area. Instead, being the gateway of trade and the centre of the economy of the region, the English settlement and their fort of 1639–40, which was the basis for the presently named city of Chennai, was likely called Madras as well by the rest of India. After India's Independence, the state of Madras came into existence and 1968, the name was changed to Tamil Nadu. Karuthiraman said, “Madras is a name in world history; Tamil Nadu will take time to reach the same heights”. The Pandyas under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan rose to power and the region was brought under the Pandya rule by putting an end to Chola supremacy in 1264. Canadian Administrative Law Blog. The Dioceses of Chingleput, Coimbatore, Ootacamund and Vellore … History about Chennai. Francis Day and his superior Andrew Cogan can be considered as the founders of Madras (now Chennai). vayiratharayan of Virukanbakkam alias Chenninallur. And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Architecture photos available for quick and easy download. Owing to the city's rich musical and cultural traditions, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has included Chennai in its Creative Cities Network. The calico cloth from the local area, which was in high demand, was of poor quality and not suitable for export to Europe. The civilisation of the Tamil people is among the oldest in the world and has been influenced by, influenced, and coexisted with many external cultures. In 1693, a perwanna was received from the local Nawab granting the towns of Tondiarpet, Purasawalkam and Egmore to the company which continued to rule from Fort St. George. The name Madras was Derived from Madrasan a fisherman head who lived in coastal area of Madras. In 1639, the local Indian rulers granted the East India Company a parcel of land upon which a fort was built as a residence for British settlers. In turn, the Madras Stock Exchange was established in 1920. Although most of the original Portuguese, Dutch, and British population had been killed during genocides during the Golkonda period, under Moghul protection, large numbers of British and Anglo-American settlers arrived to replenish these losses. By 1646, the settlement had reached 19,000 persons and with the Portuguese and Dutch populations at their forts substantially more. The Original Name of Madras Is Puliyur kottam which is 2000 year old Tamil ancient name. The Chola occupation of Tondaimandalam was put to an end by the Andhra Satavahana incursions from the north under their King Pulumayi II. Showing page 1. Following several outbreaks of violence by various Hindu and Muslim Indian communities against the Christian Europeans, White Town's defenses and its territorial charter was expanded to incorporate most of the area which had grown up around its walls thereby incorporating most of its Catholic European settlements. The main difficulty, among the English those days, was a lack of money. Those who uphold this theory favour the view that the Tamils belong to the Dravidian race and were part of the early Indus Valley settlers. January 2021 0 0 The Department of comparative Philology, Oriental Research Institute, University of Madras first began its researches in Tamil in 1914. Alternative Titles: Ceṉṉai, Madras, Madraspatnam Chennai, formerly Madras, city, capital of Tamil Nadu state, southern India, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. According to the treaty, only Europeans, principally Protestant British settlers were allowed to live in this area as outside of this confine, non-Indians were not allowed to own property. Nonetheless, the Fort and its surrounding walls remained under British control who slowly rebuilt their colony with additional colonists despite another mass murder of Europeans in Black Town by anti-colonialists agitated by Golkonda and plague in the 1670s. But there is some consensus that it is an abbreviation of Madraspatnam, the site chosen by the British East India Company for a permanent settlement in 1639.[15]. Vaiyapuri Pillai, Sri.R.P. The arrival of the railway in India during the 19th century helped the city to connect with other crucial cities like Mumbai and Kolkata which encouraged communication and trading in the surrounding area. Madras to Chennai | 1900 - 2018 | Road to Chennai | Exclusive Transformation of Chennai - Duration: 3:27. Madras . (i) Madras Native Association was founded in 1852. Since its establishment as a city in 1639, English was the official language of the city. … This together with the written records makes it clear that the Fort which became the centre of present Chennai, was built upon or nearby the village of Madraspatnam. This was also surrounded by a wall. During the course of the late 17th century, both plague and genocidal warfare reduced the population of the colony dramatically. As the city is an important administrative and commercial centre, many others such as Bengalis, Punjabis, Gujaratis and Marwaris, as well as people from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar migrated to the city and have contributed to its cosmopolitan nature. In February 1640, Day and Cogan, accompanied by a few factors and writers, a garrison of about twenty-five European soldiers and a few other European artificers, besides a Hindu powder-maker named Naga Battan, proceeded to the land which had been granted and started a new English factory there. The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. However, it is widely recorded that while the official center of the present settlement was designated Fort St. George, the British applied the name Madras to a new large city which had grown up around the Fort including the "White Town" consisting principally of British settlers, and "Black Town" consisting of principally Catholic Europeans and allied Indian minorities. After Indian independence in 1947, the Madras Presidency became Madras state. In the latter part of the 17th century, Madras steadily progressed during the period of the East India Company and under many Governors. Each time, the survivors fell back upon the safety of the Fort St George. It in honor of the later village upon which the British named the entire colony and the combined city Madras. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. Most of these were recruited as cheap labor from the relatively poor Telugu nationality, which in turn enraged the Tamil nationals who were originally the working and middle class settlers of Madras in the late 18th century. A popular explanation is that the name comes from the name of Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, Nayaka of Chandragiri and Vandavasi, father of Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, from whom the English acquired the town in 1639. Thereafter in a nod to the declining fortunes of the British textile owners and skilled workers who were still extant in the city, the Madras Trades Association was established in 1856, by which the old colonial families still involved in the skilled and textile trades were granted entry into the British and Indian financial trade system. In 1969 Madras state was renamed as the state of Tamil Nadu. The present-day city of Chennai started in 1644 as an English settlement known as Fort St. George. In 1788, Thomas Parry arrived in Madras as a free merchant and he set up one of the oldest mercantile companies in the city and one of the oldest in the country (EID Parry). When this was accomplished with the Independence of India in 1947, they were quickly brushed aside by the Indian population. Known as the “Gateway to South India,” Chennai is a major administrative and cultural centre. The history of Tamil Nadu goes back to the early stone age. Although, Madraspatnam is named in later records following the establishment of Fort St. George, this is likely because of the discriminatory nature of the local caste system. In 1906, the city experienced a financial crisis with the failure of its leading merchant bank, Arbuthnot & Co. The Pallava, the Chola, the Pandya, and Vijaynagar the noticeable dynasties ruled over Chennai. Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century CE by Tondaiman Ilam Tiraiyan, who was a representative of the Chola family at Kanchipuram. In the 17th century, the English East India Company decided to build a factory on the east coast and in 1626 selected its site as Armagon (Dugarazpatnam), a village some 35 miles north of Pulicat. Chennai is the automobile capital of India, with around forty percent of the automobile industry having a base there and with a major portion of the nation's vehicles being produced there. mixed Anglo Indian descendants of the original English settlers, a smaller but still extant British and European community, as well as migrant Malayalee communities in the city. The Archdiocese of Madras and the Diocese of Mylapore was amalgamated and established as the “Archdiocese of Madras-Mylapore”. The history of Tamil Nadu from the mid-17th century to 1946 is the story of the British-controlled Madras Presidency in relationship to the rise and fall of British power in India. CHIDAMBARAM ANNIE BESANT The Madras Native Association was ultimately merged with this organization. The present parts of Chennai like Poonamalee (ancient Tamil name - Poo Iruntha valli), Triplicane (ancient Tamil name - Thiru alli keni) are mentioned in Tamil bhakti literature of the 6th - 9th centuries.Thomas Pitt became the Governor of Madras in 1698 and governed for eleven years. They appointed chieftains to look after the Kanchipuram region. The bank still has its corporate headquarters in the city. The Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide, promulgated the Papal Bull, ‘Ex Primaevae Ecclesiae’ on 13th November 1952 during the reign of Pope Pius XII. This new grant laid the foundation for the expansion of Madras into its present form. Chennai boasts of a long history from the English East India Company, through the British rule to its evolution in the late 20th century as a services and manufacturing hub for India. Population of Telugu's and Tamils were more or less the same in those days, however dynamics of Madras city was changed post independence rapidly. Upon this settlement, the English expanded their colony to include a number of other European communities, new British settlements, and various native villages, one of which was named Mudhirasa pattanam. This site is owned and managed by WN Network. In 1927, a separate Tamil Department was established in the Institute. The next year, flush with funds won from the original British owners who had capitalized the bank, he organized a group of Chettiar merchants to found Indian Bank, with which he funded new Indian enterprises and broke into the previously closed ranks of the British financial system. Nonetheless, as any purview of the city's and other major metropolitan cemeteries of India can attest, hundreds of thousands came to India between the 1600s (decade) and 1770s and later another million more came between 1770 and 1870. Tamil Nadu was very active during the Non-cooperation Movement under the leadership of C Rajagopalachari and E V Ramaswamy. The name Madras was Derived from Madrasan a fisherman head who lived in coastal area of Madras. This period witnessed remarkable development of trade and increase in wealth resulting in the building of many fine houses, mansions, housing developments, an expanded port and city complete with new city walls, and various churches and schools for the British colonists and missionary schools for the local Indian population. Over time, Indians also arrived in ever greater numbers and soon, the Portuguese and other non-Protestant Christian Europeans were outnumbered. Under this Charter, the British and Protestant inhabitants were granted the rights of self-government and independence from company law. Currently, the nomenclature of the area is in a state of controversy. Tamil Nadu Elevation – 6m (20ft)Coordinates:13.08389°N 80.27000°E Connectivity Map Furthermore, it expanded the Company property by attaching an additional piece of land known as the Narimedu (or 'Jackal-ground') which lay to the west of the village of Madraspatnam. In the Tamil language, the … Over time and administrative reforms, the area was finally fully incorporated into the new metropolitan charter of Madras. Several times throughout the life of the colony, the Fort became the last refuge of Europeans and their allied Indian communities due to raids by several Indian rulers and powers, which resulted in the almost total destruction of the town. British conquest & Tamil renaissance. Contact our Advertising team for Advertising or Sponsorship on TravelAgents.com Network. It was from Damarla Venkatadri Nayakadu domain, on 22 August 1639, the piece of land lying between the river Cooum almost at the point it enters the sea and another river known as the Egmore river was granted to East India Company after deed from Vijaynagara emperor. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency and thus became home to important commercial organisations. (iv) V.S. Modern Chennai had its origins as a colonial city and its initial growth was closely tied to its importance as an artificial harbour and trading center. On 20 August 1639, Francis Day of the East India Company along with Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu traveled to Chandragiri palace to meet the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya and to obtain a grant for a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities. The modern city of "Chennai" arose from the British settlement of Fort St. George and its subsequent expansion through merging numerous native villages and European settlements around Fort St. George into the city of Madras. They requested Day and the Damarla Venkatadri Nayakadu to wait until the sanction of the superior English Presidency of Bantam in Java could be obtained for their action. (History of Tamil Nadu 1565 - 1982: Professor K.Rajayyan, Head of the School of Historical Studies, M.K.University, Madurai - Raj Publishers, Madurai, 1982) Today an estimated 80 million Tamils live in many lands - more than 50 million Tamils live in Tamil Nadu in South India and around 3 million reside in the island of Sri Lanka. The original building which housed Spencer & Co. was burnt down in a fire in 1983 and the present structure houses one of the largest shopping malls in India, Spencer Plaza. As a result, owing to the frequency of outbursts of racial and national violence against the Europeans and especially the English, Fort St George with its impressive fortifications became the nucleus around which the city grew and rebuilt itself. (iii) The Madras Mahajana Sabha demanded conduct of civil services examinations only in India. Although they remained in control of the original corporations and businesses of Madras, and were the official representatives of the Imperial government, their communities size relative to the larger Indian population in Madras ensured their eventual demise should democratic control be given to Indian nationalities in place of the older Colonial charters. The next year British built the Fort St. George which then became a core part of the growing colonial city. The English translation of the motto of the University of Madras is: "Learning promotes (one's) natural (innate) talent." 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